which of the following statements accurately describes viruses?

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Electrotherapy Unit III PTA Ultrasound Quiz 1. Examine the figure below. Which of the following statements accurately describes how viruses reproduce? b. Issues associated with _______________ heath may take up to 15% of the worldwide disease burden by 2020 as conditions such as depression are growing more prevalent in both developed and developing countries. a) bacteriophages c. smooth endoplasmic reticulum c. Substances can only pass through the membrane with the help of either active or passive transport proteins. Editor's Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. a. the cytosol. Dialysis tubing is a selectively permeable membrane that can be filled with a solution to simulate a cell. 13-53 Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a condition resulting in chronic bacterial and fungal infections, is caused by one or more defects in _____, compromising the ability of macrophages to _____. d. Candida albicans a. What is the determined cause of colony collapse disorder? Collection, integration, and effective use of clinical data for this purpose presents a variety of specific challenges. Which of the following processes can be effective in preventing the onset of viral infection in humans? This is because the solution on the left side of the figure is hypotonic while the solution on the right side of the figure is hypertonic. - The mere presence of a toxin is insignificant without considering how much is there, where it is located, how accessible it is, and who is exposed. What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses? b. NADPH oxidase; produce superoxide radical (-) d. the use of antibiotics. Viruses contain DNA, so they are alive. Match the persistent organic pollutant (POP) of current concern to its source. Colony collapse disorder is a persistent epidemic that affects ___________________. Which of the following groups of people is most likely to have an increased exposure to toxic chemicals because of their job responsibilities? c. passive carrier proteins f. It is able to render target cells responsive even if they express only one functional allele of IFNR1. Because organs such as your skin and liver make frequent repairs, they are also more likely to ______. b. channel proteins The saline you used was isotonic to the RBCs; this resulted in water osmosing through the RBC plasma membrane into and out of the cells at an equal rate. c) viroids The Black Death, the 1918 influenza, and the H1N1 flu virus were all ______, as they caused widespread and worldwide infections. The leading reasons for nonrational risk perception include ______. d. eukaryotic cells . Other IMG plans that may be of interest. d. a ribosome. Name several indicators that scientists use to evaluate the effects of climate change. Asbestos workers who smoke, however, have a 400-fold increase in cancer rates. a. CD4 A layer of lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and phospholipids that covers the outer surface of some viruses is the a. rise markedly after T-cell activation - Reduced cancer risk c. nucleic acids. c. The solution level on the left side of the figure would decrease while the solution level on the right side of the figure would rise. Please describe the competing . What factors make emergent diseases a special problem? b) Viruses can replicate independently of their cellular hosts. A.) b) Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses Which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Viruses burst (lyse) from host cells and kill the cell; Virus connects to a receptor on the cell's surface; New viruses infect other cells and create more viruses; Virus genomes and protein cotas self-assemble; Re-sequence the steps in teh chart to reflect the correct order of the virus reproduction process. b. hydrophilic; hydrophobic; They line up hydrophobic tails facing each other at the center line of the membrane with the hydrophilic heads facing outward, away from the center line of the membrane. d. myeloperoxidase d. factor D These changes, called cytopathic effects, can change cell functions or even destroy the cell. Some viruses have an external membrane envelope. O The presence of an envelope influences viral entry and exit strategies. Of the many factors that determine whether a particular chemical will prove to be dangerous, which of the following are based on the nature of the chemical agent itself? b. - do not damage or kill living organisms by reacting with cellular components to disrupt metabolic functions b. Staphylococcus aureus The Office of Justice Services (OJS), within the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), is searching for an individual to serve as a Victim Assistance Program Manager. Which of the following describes a virus? . Which statement accurately describes capitalism? d. active transport. 5. a) enter a replicative cycle that does not kill the host cell. b. protease Question 12. 1. The nuclear envelope consists of two concentric phospholipid bilayers while the plasma membrane is only one phospholipid bilayer. The water will mostly move from side "B" to side "A" because the water concentration is higher on side "B." d. I would expect to find the photosynthetic enzymes associated with the ER of the bacteria. a) enter a replicative cycle that does not kill the host cell. d. a eukaryotic cell with a nucleus. Which of the following statements explains why, despite these probability calculations, people perceive driving as less risky and are more accepting of the associated risks? A. b. d. a chromosome, where the pipe cleaners represent bundles of proteins around which the DNA double helix (wired ribbon) is wrapped. They produce proteins used by other parts of the cell. b) They can be spread via the plasmodesmata. - Mutagens are agents such as chemicals or radiation that damage DNA. - Our increasing ability to detect traces of a substance sometimes means that though we can detect it, the level may be too low to cause harm. d) I, Which of the following characteristics is the largest contributor to determining a virus's host range? This cell is weighed and then placed in a beaker of 3 percent iodine dissolved in water. Match each type of substance to its characteristic. - Policy decisions about toxins must address how such materials affect not just humans but also organisms that define and maintain our environment. 1 litre or 1 centilitre. - Vegetables, whole grains, and other healthy foods can boost our ability to tolerate toxins. c. X-linked hyper IgM syndrome: gamma globulin injections Other duties may be assigned as deemed necessary or appropriate by management. a. CD40 ligand c. converts sunlight into chemical energy. b. fall below the CD8 T-cell count e. X-linked Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Oil-soluble types - These substances need a carrier molecule to move through the environment, but once they are inside cells they likely accumulate and persist. . The science involved in determining whether endocrine disrupters are harmful shows how establishing public policy is difficult. This could be best used as a simple model for - The dose makes the poison. c. lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by deficiency of SH2D1A Dicamba - Used as an herbicide; a plant hormone d. They cause excessive synthesis and release of cytokines. You place a small drop of the blood on a slide, add a drop of strong saline (salt) solution, and then cover all of it with a coverslip. The membranes of the mitochondria provide a place for enzymes needed for cellular respiration to anchor and function. Endocrine disruptors like BHA in facial moisturizers - Absorption (dermal) d. There will be no net movement of water because the solutions are isotonic. c) re-infection by a closely related herpesvirus of a different strain Which of the following are true about the effects of exposure to carcinogens? a. is the site where lipids destined for other cellular compartments are manufactured. So, the water osmosed across the plasma membranes out of the radish cells decreasing the turgor pressure inside of the cells and making them crunchier. d. Mycobacterium tuberculosis b) Vertical transmission is the transfer of DNA from one type of plant virus to another, and horizontal transmission is the exchange of DNA between two plant viruses of the same type. c - Dose must be above a threshold level before anyone in the population shows a response which suggests the presence of some defense mechanism against the harmful effects of the toxin. c. the expression of MHC class I and class II molecules The measles virus causes nasal and lung infections. 13-25 Deficiencies in complement components C5-C9 and properdin (factor P) are associated with _____. d. hereditary angioedema: C1INH infusions - Chronic exposure involves continuous or repeated contact with a toxic substance over a long period of time (months or years). a. - Chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes are increasing and spreading to poorer populations. The study of the effects of flammable chemicals on forests, Allergies, headaches, and chronic fatigue due to poorly ventilated indoor spaces contaminated by toxins, such as formaldehyde released from carpeting, furniture, and other building materials can result in ______________ _____________ ______________. The radish cells were hypertonic to the water in which they were soaking. Tests on living animals are more reliable than other tests. d. immune evasion Which of the following characteristics is the largest contributor to determining a virus's host range? When a dose-response curve for a particular toxin shows a threshold for the response, it generally suggests ______. What is the current trend in the worldwide mental health disease burden? c. secondary immunodeficiency diseases d. palisade mesophyll, Which of the following would be the best analogy for the function of the Golgi apparatus? e) Retroviruses. A: Answer- Virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that is non-living outside the cell and living. e. they are unable to transduce signals when bound to the normal form. However, a huge health scare in Flint, Michigan, occurred in 2016 when children were exposed to lead through ______. b. d. simple diffusion, You are a scientist observing a membrane through which water and some small hydrophobic molecules can freely pass along a concentration gradient from high to low. c. Proviruses are flanked by repetitive sequences called long terminal repeats (LTRs). a. epidermis b. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 13-21 Individuals with an antibody deficiency are more susceptible to infections by all of the following except _____. a. I would expect to find the photosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts of the bacteria. 13-4 The serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae differ in their _____. d. creates energy by converting ribosomes to proteins. X=(112110101)X\mathbf{X}^{\prime}=\left(\begin{array}{rrr}{1} & {-1} & {2} \\ {-1} & {1} & {0} \\ {-1} & {0} & {1}\end{array}\right) \mathbf{X} The solution level on the left side of the figure would decrease while the solution level on the right side of the figure would rise. e. B cells; EBNA-1. Match each of the potential toxins listed below to their most likely routes of exposure. T-cell-dependent antibody responses; cell-mediated immune responses. Which of the following correctly characterizes white-nose syndrome? Trends in obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes show that such diseases are ______. 13-2 _____ results when a gene affecting the immune system mutates, thereby compromising the body's defense against infection. - in the blood of nearly everyone in the United States. After soaking in the yellow iodine-water solution for one hour, the cell is once again weighed. A solid waste (garbage) transfer facility that sorts and breaks down garbage into recyclables and waste to be thrown away in the landfill would be a suitable analogy for which cellular organelle? d. Transport proteins, channel proteins, and passive carrier proteins all help increase the selective permeability of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Eradication of diseases such as polio or smallpox. d) Vertical transmission is the spread of viruses from trees and tall plants to bushes and other smaller plants, and horizontal transmission is the spread of viruses among plants of similar size. b. the cytosol; escaping from the phagosome c. The saline you used was hypertonic to the RBCs; this resulted in water osmosing through the RBC plasma membrane mostly out of the cell. answer choices Viruses can eat and metabolize food. - the presence of a defense mechanism that prevents the toxin from reaching its target or repairs the damage that the toxin causes Once the amoeba's pseudopodia completely surrounds the other protozoan, the amoeba's plasma membrane pinches off by folding back into the amoeba and creating a vesicle containing the smaller protozoan. Today health agencies calculate DALYs rather than mortality rates as a measure of disease burden because ______. d. Certain solutes move freely across the membrane by simple diffusion while others must be helped across by active or passive transport proteins; some substances are completely excluded from crossing the membrane. a. Why do scientists classify viruses as non-living? b) They can be spread via the plasmodesmata. 13-37 An epidemic affects _____, whereas a pandemic affects _____. Lead was banned from gasoline and paint in the 1970s and health problems associated with its exposure have dropped significantly since then. This study was reported . Mortality rates are reduced by the administration of antibiotics to affected individuals. So, the water moved by osmosis across the plasma membranes into the radish cells increasing the turgor pressure inside of the cells and making them crunchier. a) Vertical transmission is transmission of a virus from a parent plant to its progeny, and horizontal transmission is one plant spreading the virus to another plant. b. X-linked hyper IgM syndrome: GM-CSF injections 13-22 When deficient, which of the following proteins does not render the individual more susceptible to encapsulated bacteria? Which of the following statements correctly describes one difference between vertical and horizontal transmission of plant viruses? d) the proteins on the viral surface and that of the host cell membrane. a. c. semipermeable answer choices Organism that lives on the cell and causes it harm Something that causes harm to the cell Cell that the virus invades and takes over Question 3 120 seconds Q. - Infectious diseases such as diarrhea are on the decline globally. - for activities we enjoy or find profitable Asbestos exposure and smoking each increase lung cancer rates 20-fold. d. Liposomes form from phospholipid bilayers and provide a barrier between an external environment and an internal environment; this creates an internal environment where specific chemical reactions needed to establish a living cell can occur separately from the external environment. c. the ER lumen. Outbreaks of health problems that have a psychological rather than a physical basis are referred to as ______. e. agammaglobulinemia caused by deficiency of Bruton's tyrosine kinase A mutation in the gene encoding the integrase enzyme (the protein that inserts the dsDNA into a host cell's DNA) renders the protein non-functional. A change in the pressure of a gas results in a more significant change in volume than it would in a liquid. Increased frequency:increased depth of penetration B. a. You isolate an infectious substance that is capable of causing disease in plants, but you do not know whether the infectious agent is a bacterium, virus, or prion. Which of the following statements are true about how people apply probability in determining how much risk to accept and when to avoid exposure to certain risks? Toluene and formaldehyde from cigarette smoke - Inhalation (respiratory tract) a. a virus. d. Chdiak-Higashi syndrome How would the affect the HIV infection cycle? O Enveloped viruses do not have protein spikes. 13-42 Epstein-Barr virus infects and establishes latency in _____, gaining entry by binding to _____. Chytridiomycosis (or chytrid fungus) is an ecological disease that affects amphibians and is ______. Which of the following are environmental disease (health) agents? 13-15 Superantigens bind to all of the following molecules except _____. The Sprague-Dawley rat is ______ to endocrine disrupters than ordinary rats, so studies using them are not reliable. POPs, or ______________ _____________ ______________, are dangerous because they don't degrade quickly and cells readily take them up. Match the mechanism of eliminating toxins to the body part that is responsible for the action. c. the cytosol Compare and contrast the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane. e. protease. - The chemical industry disputes the need for testing, and industry-funded scientists point to contradictions and uncertainties in published studies. If each sugar molecule represents a percentage point of sugar dissolved in the solution, what change would you expect to see in the solution level over time and why? d. pinocytosis. c. phagocytosis. They bind to MHC class I molecules and T-cell receptors. You know that the enzymes needed to perform photosynthesis in plant cells are closely associated with the membranes in chloroplasts. b. hyper IgM syndrome caused by deficiency of CD40 ligand What general type of membrane are you observing? c. a TAP peptide transporter a. effective at minuscule concentrations Car accidents and firearm assaults - These have risks between 1 in 103 to 1 in 285 - Allergens activate the immune system. - LD50 is the dose of the toxin that is lethal to half the population. d. carrier proteins. A nonliving complex of RNA or DNA protected by a protein coat a - Some of the population responds, even at zero dose of the toxin, suggesting that some other factor in the environment also causes this response c. facilitated diffusion d. it made plymouth a royal colony On the basis of the experimental data and the gradient-less optimization approach, the modeling strategy and the parameterized equivalent dynamic finite element model are presented. b. gp120 Select one: a. Ribosomes are very small non-membranous organelles that can either exist freely in the cytoplasm or be embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell; they are associated with the synthesis of This is because the solution on the left side of the figure is hypertonic while the solution on the right side of the figure is hypotonic. The phage genome is integrated in the host chromosome where it is passed on to daughter cells through binary fission. d. Certain solutes move freely across the membrane by simple diffusion while others must be helped across by active or passive transport proteins; some substances are completely excluded from crossing the membrane. c. processing to peptides is not required for T-cell activation Dog attacks. Your lab partner has also made a slide, but the RBCs on their slide do look like the ones in the lab manual; your lab partner used a more dilute solution of saline but the same vial of blood. A majority of the MRSA (methicillan-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections recorded in 2011 were related to ______. Students use a microscope to look for structures present in four different cells. Which of the following statements accurately describes a viral envelope? b. 20. the virus is able to transform into a host cell. 13-43 Which of the following is not used by the herpes simplex virus to subvert host immune responses? - demand protection from every potentially harmful contaminant or accept some exposure as our bodies can repair some damage IV. b. MHC class II chain ; Patriot Platinum Travel Medical Insurance SM . The saline you used was hypotonic to the RBCs; this resulted in water osmosing through the RBC plasma membrane mostly into the cells. Which of the following applies to ecological diseases? Which of the following organelles would you expect to be especially abundant in muscle cells? a. the virus inhibits MHC class I expression A variety of respiratory diseases in humans can be caused by adenoviruses. Which of the following important considerations in setting environmental health policy is most often overlooked? c. They do not readily mix with the hydrophobic tails forming the core of the phospholipid bilayer; therefore, they must move across by facilitated diffusion. b. produces the energy needed to run chemical reactions in the cell. Find the general solution of the given system. a) They can be spread via the plasmodesmata. .ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS1. a. bacteria, some fungi (yeast), and many protozoans. Viruses are much smaller than bacteria cells. b. sorts proteins and lipids and sends them to their final destination. This specifically makes alcohol a ______. the host cell is turned into a virus. A metal such as lead that is stable, resistant to degradation, and can impair children's health long after exposure and far from where it might have first been used is of concern because of its _______. e. They induce suppression of the immune response by causing T cells to undergo apoptosis. b. sorts proteins and lipids and sends them to their final destination. a. a. plasma membrane. c. The cell should gain weight over time because it is hypertonic to the beaker environment and water will enter the cell through osmosis. * A. c. No; although prokaryotic cells are comparatively less efficient than eukaryotic cells, they are still able to carry out the processes necessary for survival and reproduction. After returning to your desk, you observe the slide with your microscope and notice that all of the red blood cells (RBCs) do not look like the nice round donut shaped cells in your lab manual. a. prokaryotic and plant e) Viral genomes mutate rapidly. B. If a bottle of perfume were spilled in the corner of a large lecture hall, the students sitting near that corner of the room would very quickly smell the perfume. They are much less sensitive to ______ than regular rats, so studies using them are highly suspect. A virus is made up of a DNA or RNA genome inside a protein shell called a capsid. .Know, understand, incorporate, and demonstrate the Mission, Vision, Values and Guiding Behaviors of Trinity Health and LIFE at St. Joseph of the Pines in behaviors, practices, and decisions. c. oxygen (O2) b. Which of the following statements about chronic and acute exposure and effects are correct? a) III costs may increase significantly to protect the very small number of highly sensitive individuals at the extreme end of the curve. Pesticide residue on food - Ingestion (gastrointestinal tract) a) The gp120 glycoprotein would no longer be able to bind to the CCR5 receptor. 13-9 Which of the following statements regarding herpes simplex virus is false? Both membranes are selectively permeable and have pores. C. Viruses contain organelles while bacteria cells do not. Factor related to the exposure - Dose and frequency of contact with the chemical b. sodium ions (Na+), hydrogen ions (H+), sugars, and amino acids c. innate; acquired immune responses d) They have little effect on plant growth. d. local populations; global populations. triggering a response in our immune systems, foreign materials that stimulate the production of specific antibodies. b. Antigenic shift; antigenic drift d. Epstein-Barr virus A collection of three American sterling silver vases and a sterling-overlay glass vasevarious makers, 20th centuryComprising a Tiffany & Co. bud vase with 925 sterling hallmark, with 1907-1947 date mark, maker's mark, "19397 5521" marked to interior; an early 20th century Unger bud vase with vine and floral engraving, with sterling hallmark, maker's mark, "09792" marked to . a. Yes; without organelles, prokaryotes are unable to bring together the reactants needed for biological reactions. 120 seconds. It has not been previously known or has been absent for at least 20 years. 13-40 Which of the following is not a virus that can cause a persistent infection in the host by establishing latency? Which of the following is/are part of accepted cell theory? What is the most likely explanation of why they became crunchy again after soaking in water? - possibly spread by humans from one cave to another on their shoes and clothing. c. infected cells do not express any viral proteins during latency Correct answers: 2 question: 7. which one of the following statements is most accurate regarding the mayflower compact? 13-56 Bare lymphocyte syndrome leading to a lack of HLA class II molecule expression is due to a defect in _____. c) They are rarely spread by insects. A. HIV is deadly, but doesn't target key cells in the immune system. Some antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections kill the bacteria by chemically punching holes in the cell wall of the bacteria, by preventing the bacteria from replicating their DNA, or by many other actions that ultimately cause cell death. b. herpes simplex virus The standard GNSS-IR model typically considers soil to be a single layer of medium and measures the average SMC between 1 and 10 cm below the soil surface. f. SCID caused by deficiency of common chain. a) The gp120 glycoprotein would no longer be able to bind to the CCR5 receptor. DDT is a well-known case of biomagnification in the environment. Mutable requirements Emergent requirements Consequential requirements Compatibility requirements SCENARIO: Consider an online shopping portal that allows a customer to browse and purchase different products.

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